Emerging Antibiotic Resistance of Blood Stream Infections among Children
Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem in the management of childhood infections. Bacteria have developed various mechanisms of resistance. Indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of superbugs which have developed resistance to multiple antibiotics. Now a days researchers showing promising role of usage of older antibiotics for treatment of resistant infections. Multidrug resistant gram negative infections is a challenging situation where combination therapy and drugs with gram positive coverage like vancomycin are showing positive results. Ampicillin is losing sensitivity and protocols have been modified in using cephalosporins as the first line in some units. Carbapenam resistance and ESBL are emerging among hospitalised patients. Similarly emergence of community acquired MRSA possessing a new virulence toxin (Panton-Valentine leukocidin) is a serious threat among childhood infections. Unfortunately of late only minimal resources are directed to the development of newer antibiotics. It’s time to consider the emerging antibiotic resistance particularly among children as a serious issue and start rational antibiotic practice and develop unit specific antibiotic policy to fight against antibiotic resistance.
The emergence, growth and spread of bacteria with increasing antibiotic resistance are a sign can’t health risk to children. Although antibiotics can be life-saving, its overuse leads to the development of resistance. Bacteria have developed varied mechanisms of resistance to all classes of antibiotics like inactivation of the antimicrobial, alteration of the site of antibiotic activity and isolation of the target site from the antibiotic . Mechanisms of resistance to anti-microbial used to treat infectious disease have been known since before antibiotics were introduced into routine clinical usage.
We conducted a systematic search on Pub-Med and Google scholar; reports from WHO and other organizations. We have used search terms as antibiotic resistance children.
Unlike 1980s, when large numbers of new antimicrobials were developed on a regular basis, nowadays minimal resources are devoted to development of newer antimicrobials. In the era of 'Superbugs' which are resistant to several different antibiotics, rational anti biotic policy and optimizing the use of older antibiotics are imperative to prevent the emergence of antibiotic resistance.
Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy
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